Arsitektur tropis bangunan tinggi Ken Yeang / High Rise tropical Architecture of Ken Yeang


[artikel khusus] astudioarchitect.com Arsitektur yang memperhatikan lingkungan merupakan arsitektur masa depan, karena dalam arsitektur jenis ini akan didapatkan penyelesaian yang baik untuk menanggapi iklim tanpa menggunakan lebih banyak resource sumber daya alam yang tak dapat diperbaharui seperti minyak bumi untuk mempertahankan kondisi ideal bangunan, misalnya suhu, kelembaban, serta pencahayaan dan penghawaan. Kali ini kita akan mempelajari arsitektur tropis untuk bangunan tingkat tinggi yang dikembangkan oleh arsitek Ken Yeang, seorang arsitek kelahiran Malaysia yang belajar di Inggris dan Amerika. Belum banyak arsitektur high rise yang memperhatikan iklim tropis dan memberdayakannya dalam bangunan seperti Ken Yeang, dan karena itu jenis arsitektur ini menjadi unik untuk dipelajari.


Architecture that cares for the environment is the future of architecture, because architecture of this type will create good solution to respond to climate without using more non renewable resources such as oil to maintain the ideal condition of the building, such as temperature, humidity, and lighting. This time we will study tropical architecture for high rise building by Ken Yeang, a Malaysian-born architect who studied in England and America. Currently many high-rise architecture is concerned to respond to tropical climate and empower them in buildings such as Ken Yeang, and therefore this type of architecture unique to learn.

Sebagaimana jenis arsitektur yang berkembang pada akhir abad 20, Menara Mesiniaga dibuat dari konstruksi baja dan kaca yang prefabricated dan mempercepat masa konstruksi. Memperhatikan iklim tropis, Yeang menempatkan tangga dan lift pada bagian timur menara, dan ruang-ruang pada sisi barat yang dilindungi oleh kisi-kisi penahan panas. Tujuannya agar sinar matahari pagi cukup maksimal dan cahaya sore yang panas bisa ditahan oleh kisi-kisi tersebut.

Perhatian Yeang adalah pada hubungan antara lingkungan binaan (built environment) dengan lingkungan alam yang diwujudkan dalam adaptasi terhadap cahaya matahari dan angin melalui studi yang mendalam untuk mendapatkan bangunan tingkat tinggi dengan pencahayaan dan penghawaan alami. Aliran udara dimasukkan dalam bangunan melalui innercourt dan ‘dinding angin’ yang juga memasukkan cahaya alami.
Beberapa bagian bangunan yang berfungsi sebagai ‘buffer’ atau penahan untuk angin, sinar matahari dan sebagainya diwujudkan dalam kisi-kisi, tabir, balkon, atau buffer tanaman yang disarankan oleh Yeang dalam upaya beradaptasi dengan lingkungan tropis.



As a type of architecture developed in the late 20th century, Mesiniaga tower was made of steel and glass construction of prefabricated materials to accelerate the construction period. Taking into account the tropical climate, Yeang put stairs and elevators on the east side of the tower, and the spaces on the west side is protected by grille retaining heat. The purpose is to get morning sunlight.


Yeang’s attention is on the relationship between the built environment with the natural environment, realized in the adaptation to sun and wind through a deep study to obtain high-rise building with natural lighting and air. The flow of air through the building included in inner court and ‘wall of wind’ which also includes natural light.


Some parts of the building that serves as a buffer or barrier to wind, sunlight and so realized in the lattice, screen, balcony, or buffer of plants recommended by Yeang in an effort to adapt to the tropical environment. 

Konsep Ken Yeang tentang pencakar langit yang disebutnya ‘Artificial Land in the Sky’ merupakan konsep pencakar langit (high rise building) yang dapat ‘hidup’ dan beradaptasi dengan lingkungannya seperti halnya mahluk hidup. Struktur bangunan berfungsi sebagai bingkai dan lantai-lantainya dapat berfungsi berbeda beda, seperti menjadi taman bermain, mall, cafe atau yang lainnya. Konsep ini tak ubahnya seperti mendefinisikan lantai-lantai pencakar langit menjadi seperti sebuah lahan kosong yang bisa diisi berbagai fungsi seperti perumahan, taman, serta tempat-tempat komersial pada umumnya.
“Bangunan akan harus didesain bukan sebagai sistem terbuka berenergi tinggi yang polutan, tapi sebagai tiruan dari ekosistem urban yang berhubungan dengan imput, output dan operasi didalam konteks tersebut dan membawa kapasitas ekosistem dalam biosfer…”

Ken Yeang concept of skyscraper called ‘Artificial Land in the Sky’ is a skyscraper concept (high-rise building) that can be ‘alive’ and adapt to the environment as living beings. The structure serves as a frame building and the floors can vary different functions, such as a playground, mall, cafe or other. This concept is like defining the ground-floor skyscraper to be like an empty lot that can fill a variety of functions such as housing, parks, and commercial places in general.


“Buildings will need to be designed not as high-energy polluting open systems but as mimetic urban ecosystems that relate their inputs, outputs and operations within the context and carrying capacities of the ecosystems in the biosphere…”

Lingkungan binaan (built environment) akan berinteraksi dengan lingkungannya dalam hubungan yang lebih organik dan alami, serta mengurangi dampak dari arsitektur yang inorganik atau artifisial. Hal ini berarti, mendefinisikan kembali sistem-sistem dalam bangunan tinggi yang selama ini banyak menggunakan sistem buatan seperti penghawaan buatan (air conditioning/AC) menjadi penghawaan alami, melalui proses-proses yang biasa didapatkan dari alam secara langsung.
Hal ini bisa berarti membawa unsur tanaman hijau dalam lingkungan vertikal pencakar langit, yaitu memberikan rasio perbandingan antara ruang yang inorganik dan organik agar mencapai keseimbangan layaknya diatas tanah. Inilah yang disebut Ken Yeang sebagai “Artificial Land in the Sky”. Peniruan terhadap ekosistem ini bisa dianalogikan seperti sarang semut diatas tanah yang dalam skala semut berarti adalah sebuah pencakar langit. Analogi lainnya: seseorang yang memakai payung disaat hujan menerpa, yang merupakan perlindungan terhadap variasi perubahan iklim eksternal, disebutnya sebagai ‘cybernetic enclosural system’.

Picture source: http://www.garycolquhoun.com.au/barkly_tableland.htm

Built environment will interact with the natural environment in a more organic and natural relationship, and reduce the impact of the architecture of inorganic or artificial. This means redefining systems in high buildings including uses of artificial systems such as artificial air conditioning into natural air conditioning, through direct use of natural air.


This could mean bringing elements of green plants in a vertical environment skyscrapers, which gives a ratio between the inorganic and the organic in order to achieve a balance as above ground. This is what called by Ken Yeang as “Artificial Land in the Sky”. Impersonation of this ecosystem could be analogous to such as high ground nests of ants, which in the ant scale means is a skyscraper. Another analogy: a person with an umbrella in rain, which is a protection against variations of external climate change, called the ‘enclosural cybernetic system’.

(bersambung ke bagian 2/ to be continued at part 2)

________________________________________________

by Probo Hindarto

© Copyright 2010 astudio Indonesia. All rights reserved.

About these ads

3 responses to “Arsitektur tropis bangunan tinggi Ken Yeang / High Rise tropical Architecture of Ken Yeang

  1. Ken Yeang is regarded, by his peers, as a man ahead of his time. He recognized 40 years ago that global warming and increased contamination of the environment would adversely affect the natural balance of biodiversity and ecosystems. Applying the ecology based approach to master planning of one of his mentors, Ian McHarg, Yeang has successfully applied those principles to architecture.Yeang uses his concepts of ecodesign in all of his architectural projects. Through constant experimentation over many decades Yeang developed a solid reputation as a pioneer, advocate, and innovator of authentic bioclimatic ecological design. By the mid l990’s private and public clients around the world have selected him for their ecomasterplans and architectural ecodesigned projects.Based on the principles of ecomimicry (a term he invented), all of Yeang’s architectural ecodesigns and masterplans achieve a connectivity and benign biointegration between the human built environment and the surrounding ecosystems.The current environmental concerns have produced a generation of architects and engineers who approach “green” design and construction through ecoengineering or simple compliance to green accreditation systems (such as LEED, BREEAM, and Green Globes, for example) around the world. To Yeang, these practices,while relevant and progressive, but do not constitute authentic “green” design in totality.As Yeang stated in his Cambridge University PhD dissertation in the l970’s, “It is easy to be misled or seduced by technology and to think that if we assemble enough eco-gadgetry in the form of solar collectors, photovoltaic cells, biological recycling systems, building-automation systems and double-skin facades in one single building that this can automatically be considered ecological architecture. Although these technologies are commendable applications of low-energy systems, they are merely useful components leading towards ecological architecture; they represent some of the means of achieving an ecological end product. Ecological design is not just about low-energy systems; to be fully effective, these technologies need to be thoroughly integrated into the building fabric; they will also be influenced by the physical, ecological and climatic conditions of the site. The nature of the problem is therefore site specific. There will never be a standard “one size fits all” solution.”As a consequence of his strong beliefs in ecomimicry, Yeang’s design projects focus on achieving benign and seamless biointegration, that includes reduced or zero dependency on non-renewable sources of energy, enhanced ecological nexus through devices such as eco-land bridges, eco-undercrofts, vertical landscaping, ecocells, green living walls, ecological corridors and fingers which reach into the landscape and towards the sky at the same time. Some of the devices he uses in his buitforms include light shelves, light pipes, skycourts, vertical linked enclosed green atriums, and windscoops. They seek to minimize disruptions with the adjoining ecosystems and to maintain the sensitive ecobalance. His most recent advances include the setting of biodiversity targets and the creation of new viable habitats within his builtforms and their surrounds.

  2. Jadi…mesiniaga ni bisa disebut green building jg g' Ka'? cz lg bingung nyari literaturx high rise tp yg green architecture…

  3. Ken Yeang menyebutnya arsitektur yg eco mimicry. Sedangkan pelabelan 'green' atau lainnya itu terserah pada pengamat. Coba telusuri kembali pengertian2 'green' architecture dan dari parameter2 yang Anda dapatkan coba dianalisa apakah bangunan2 semacam ini bisa dikategorikan sebagai green, kembali pada penilaian Anda.

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s