[artikel khusus] astudioarchitect.com Arsitektur yang memperhatikan lingkungan merupakan arsitektur masa depan, karena dalam arsitektur jenis ini akan didapatkan penyelesaian yang baik untuk menanggapi iklim tanpa menggunakan lebih banyak resource sumber daya alam yang tak dapat diperbaharui seperti minyak bumi untuk mempertahankan kondisi ideal bangunan, misalnya suhu, kelembaban, serta pencahayaan dan penghawaan. Kali ini kita akan mempelajari arsitektur tropis untuk bangunan tingkat tinggi yang dikembangkan oleh arsitek Ken Yeang, seorang arsitek kelahiran Malaysia yang belajar di Inggris dan Amerika. Belum banyak arsitektur high rise yang memperhatikan iklim tropis dan memberdayakannya dalam bangunan seperti Ken Yeang, dan karena itu jenis arsitektur ini menjadi unik untuk dipelajari.
Architecture that cares for the environment is the future of architecture, because architecture of this type will create good solution to respond to climate without using more non renewable resources such as oil to maintain the ideal condition of the building, such as temperature, humidity, and lighting. This time we will study tropical architecture for high rise building by Ken Yeang, a Malaysian-born architect who studied in England and America. Currently many high-rise architecture is concerned to respond to tropical climate and empower them in buildings such as Ken Yeang, and therefore this type of architecture unique to learn.
Sebagaimana jenis arsitektur yang berkembang pada akhir abad 20, Menara Mesiniaga dibuat dari konstruksi baja dan kaca yang prefabricated dan mempercepat masa konstruksi. Memperhatikan iklim tropis, Yeang menempatkan tangga dan lift pada bagian timur menara, dan ruang-ruang pada sisi barat yang dilindungi oleh kisi-kisi penahan panas. Tujuannya agar sinar matahari pagi cukup maksimal dan cahaya sore yang panas bisa ditahan oleh kisi-kisi tersebut.
As a type of architecture developed in the late 20th century, Mesiniaga tower was made of steel and glass construction of prefabricated materials to accelerate the construction period. Taking into account the tropical climate, Yeang put stairs and elevators on the east side of the tower, and the spaces on the west side is protected by grille retaining heat. The purpose is to get morning sunlight.
Yeang’s attention is on the relationship between the built environment with the natural environment, realized in the adaptation to sun and wind through a deep study to obtain high-rise building with natural lighting and air. The flow of air through the building included in inner court and ‘wall of wind’ which also includes natural light.
Some parts of the building that serves as a buffer or barrier to wind, sunlight and so realized in the lattice, screen, balcony, or buffer of plants recommended by Yeang in an effort to adapt to the tropical environment.
Ken Yeang concept of skyscraper called ‘Artificial Land in the Sky’ is a skyscraper concept (high-rise building) that can be ‘alive’ and adapt to the environment as living beings. The structure serves as a frame building and the floors can vary different functions, such as a playground, mall, cafe or other. This concept is like defining the ground-floor skyscraper to be like an empty lot that can fill a variety of functions such as housing, parks, and commercial places in general.
“Buildings will need to be designed not as high-energy polluting open systems but as mimetic urban ecosystems that relate their inputs, outputs and operations within the context and carrying capacities of the ecosystems in the biosphere…”
Picture source: http://www.garycolquhoun.com.au/barkly_tableland.htm
Built environment will interact with the natural environment in a more organic and natural relationship, and reduce the impact of the architecture of inorganic or artificial. This means redefining systems in high buildings including uses of artificial systems such as artificial air conditioning into natural air conditioning, through direct use of natural air.
This could mean bringing elements of green plants in a vertical environment skyscrapers, which gives a ratio between the inorganic and the organic in order to achieve a balance as above ground. This is what called by Ken Yeang as “Artificial Land in the Sky”. Impersonation of this ecosystem could be analogous to such as high ground nests of ants, which in the ant scale means is a skyscraper. Another analogy: a person with an umbrella in rain, which is a protection against variations of external climate change, called the ‘enclosural cybernetic system’.
(bersambung ke bagian 2/ to be continued at part 2)
by Probo Hindarto
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